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An unabridged version of this article is available. When Daniel Patrick Moynihan raised the issue of family structure half a century ago, parent concern was the increase in black families headed by women. Since then, the share of children raised Sweeden xpress escorts single-parent families in the United States has grown across racial and ethnic groups and with it Sseeden regarding the impact of family structure on outcomes for children.

Recent studies have documented Single parents Harnosand Sweeden sizable achievement gap between children who live with a single parent and their peers growing up with two parents.

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These patterns are cause for concern, as educational achievement is a key driver of economic prosperity for both individuals and society as a. But how does the U.

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The data confirm that the U. And the educational achievement gap between children raised in single-parent and two-parent families, although present in virtually all countries, is particularly pronounced in the U. Sincethere have been substantial changes in achievement gaps by family pxrents in many countries, with the gap widening in some countries and narrowing in.

The U. These varying trends, and the pattern for the U. Ample evidence indicates Gay killarney Sweeden potential for enhancing family environments, regardless of their makeup, to improve the quality of parenting, nurturing, and stimulation, Single parents Harnosand Sweeden promote healthy child development.

The effect of family structure on child outcomes is a much-studied subject, Single parents Harnosand Sweeden many researchers, including Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur Growing up with a Single Parent,have explored the potentially adverse effects of single parenting on children.

Single parents may also have less time to spend with their children, and partnership instability may subject these parents to psychological and emotional stresses that worsen the nurturing environment for Sweeden escort in Sundsvall. Documented disadvantages of growing up in single-parent families in the United States include lower educational attainment and greater psychological distress, Single parents Harnosand Sweeden well as poor adult outcomes in areas such as employment, income, and marital status.

Disadvantages for children from single-parent families have also been documented in other countries, including Canada, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. But cross-country evidence has been difficult to obtain, in part because of differing methods for measuring family structure and child outcomes.

The PISA studies, which asked representative samples of year-olds in each participating country the Single parents Harnosand Sweeden questions about their living arrangements, provide a unique opportunity to address this challenge.

At the same time, it should be noted that the descriptive patterns documented here do not necessarily capture a causal effect of living in a single-parent family. Decisions to get divorced, end cohabitation, or bear a child outside a partnership are Single parents Harnosand Sweeden related to other factors important for child development, making it difficult to separate out the influence of family structure.

For example, severe stress that leads to family breakup might well have continued without the breakup and have led to worse outcomes for a child had the family remained intact. It is even conceivable that problems a child has in school may contribute to family breakup, rather Single parents Harnosand Sweeden being a consequence of it. In addition to comparing the raw gap in educational achievement between children from single- and two-parent Single parents Harnosand Sweeden, I present Bronx Boo escorts that adjust for other background differences, including the number of books at home, parental education, and immigrant and language background.

This type of analysis can provide useful information about the reasons educational achievement varies with family structure.

While Father thus had 'a single parent', my Mother came from a large and my grandfather on Mother's side oscillated between the Church of Sweden and the confirmation: Bishop Johansson in Harnosand asked her for the meaning of the. Swedish parents are apparently the most stressed out in Europe - despite having access to generous parental leave schemes. And for single mums and dads. (New York City), Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Arezzo), and Sweden (Harnosand). (DR) ED PS Frost, Joe L. And Others A Parent's Guide to classroom, comparing such a classroom with a traditional, single-grade class.

It is important parentts keep in mind, however, that even these adjusted associations between child outcomes and family structure may well have causes other than family structure.

PISA tests Solna sex girl math, science, and reading achievement of representative samples parwnts year-old students in each participating country. In nearly all countries, students living in single-parent families have lower achievement on average than students living in two-parent families.

PISA collects a rich array of background information in student questionnaires. Students report whether a mother including stepmother or foster mother usually lives at home with them, and similarly a father parennts stepfather or foster father. By including students living with step- and Single parents Harnosand Sweeden parents, the group of students identified as living in two-parent Single parents Harnosand Sweeden will include some students who have experienced a family separation.

It is possible that, as a result, any differences between students from single- and from two-parent families will be understated in the analysis. Evidence fromthe one year for which it is possible to separate out students living Single parents Harnosand Sweeden stepparents, suggests that this is indeed the case. In the international sample, the achievement difference would be 16 points rather than 14 points if stepparents were excluded from the two-parent families.

I limit the analysis to students who Single parents Harnosand Sweeden with either one Single dating events Ljungby two parents, excluding students living with neither parent and students for whom information on either the father or the mother is missing.

On average across countries, 1. My total sample contains more thanstudents or about 8, students per country on average.

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In the United States, in21 percent of year-old students lived in single-parent families see Figure 1. Together with Hungary also 21 percentthis puts the United States at the top among the countries. On Vasterhaninge single lady across all 28 countries, the share of single-parent Single parents Harnosand Sweeden is 14 percent. New Zealand also has a share higher than 20 percent, while the Czech Republic has 18 percent, and Poland, the United Kingdom, Finland, Mexico, Denmark, and France have shares between 15 and 17 percent.

At the other end of the spectrum, Greece, Korea, Italy, Hwrnosand Sweden have shares between Single parents Harnosand Sweeden.

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The Sinyle majority of single-parent families are families with a single mother. On average across countries, 86 percent of single-parent families are headed by Single parents Harnosand Sweeden mothers. In the United States, the figure is 84 percent.

To compare student achievement across countries, I focus on test scores in math, which are most readily comparable across countries. Results for science and reading achievement Swwedendocumented in the unabridged version of this study, are quite similar. That is, any achievement differences can be interpreted as percentages of a Single parents Harnosand Sweeden deviation in test scores, with one standard deviation in test-score performance representing between three and four years of Late night Gavle massage on average.

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To illustrate, the average difference in math achievement between the two grade levels in our sample with the largest shares of year-olds 9th and 10th grade is 28 test-score points, which is a Single parents Harnosand Sweeden more than one-quarter of a standard deviation and roughly equivalent to one year of learning or one grade level.

In nearly all countries, students living in single-parent families have lower achievement on average than Find person with picture living in two-parent families Single parents Harnosand Sweeden Figure 2a.

Swedish parents are apparently the most stressed out in Europe - despite having access to generous parental leave schemes. And for single mums and dads. (Boeing) Front, main: Härnösand, Sweden (Guy Toremans); top: Simpson, USA ( in each LCS will comprise a single MH60R/S helicopter and a single MQ-8B. from the parent vessel allowing the human aircrew to concentrate their efforts. (New York City), Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Arezzo), and Sweden (Harnosand). (DR) ED PS Frost, Joe L. And Others A Parent's Guide to classroom, comparing such a classroom with a traditional, single-grade class.

In the United States, the average raw achievement difference in math between students living in two-parent families and students living in single-parent families is 27 points, Single parents Harnosand Sweeden roughly one grade level.

The Single parents Harnosand Sweeden States is one of six countries with achievement differences larger than 25 points. Belgium has the largest disparity in math achievement by family structure, at 35 points, followed by the Netherlands 29and Poland, Japan, and the United Kingdom 27 to On average across the Swing clubs in Solna countries, students living in single-parent families score 18 points lower than students living in two-parent padents.

There are exceptions. Mexico shows no achievement difference by family structure, and the Sweeeden is statistically insignificant in Portugal as. The achievement difference is below 10 points in Portugal 6Italy 7Austria 8and Germany 9.

There is a slight tendency for countries with higher shares of single-parent families to have larger achievement disparities, although the correlation is not statistically significant. The United Single parents Harnosand Sweeden stands out in this figure in terms of the prevalence of single-parent families and the associated achievement gap.

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Belgium and the Netherlands exhibit the highest achievement disparities, parenta single parenthood is not particularly praents in these countries. The southern European countries Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain stand out as places with relatively low achievement disparities and relatively low prevalence of single parenthood. The German-speaking countries Austria, Germany, and Switzerland show similarly low achievement disparities despite their higher prevalence of single parenthood.

The Asian countries Korea and Japan have lower levels of single-parent families but higher achievement disparities. The Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden all have Sundbyberg personal trainer middling levels of achievement disparities despite varying levels of single-parenthood incidence.

Finally, the eastern European countries Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland have quite different achievement disparities despite the consistently high incidence of single-parent families.

The four quadrants divide the countries according to the degree of impact the prevalence of single-parent families Single parents Harnosand Sweeden likely to have over the long term. For countries in the top right cell that parentx high values on both variables—the United Single parents Harnosand Sweeden being the leading example—single parenthood may pxrents a major concern for the next Single parents Harnosand Sweeden.

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It is quite prevalent, and the associated achievement gap is quite large. In countries in the bottom right cell, such as Hungary and Mexico, single parenthood is also quite common, Swerden the achievement disparity is less severe. While Harnosajd parenthood is less prevalent in the countries in the top left cell, such as the Netherlands and Ireland, the achievement difference is large and may still constitute a serious problem for affected students. Finally, in the bottom left cell, for countries, including Italy and Spain, where single Free party line phone numbers Kavlinge is less prevalent and achievement disparities relatively small, there is less cause for concern.

The achievement differences reported so far are raw differences, not adjusted for background differences between students from single- and two-parent families. These raw Single parents Harnosand Sweeden may capture effects of disadvantaged backgrounds, as distinct from any independent effects of single parenthood.

To provide Single parents Harnosand Sweeden sense of the extent to which this might be the case, we next control for differences in family background beyond family structure.

(New York City), Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Arezzo), and Sweden (Harnosand). (DR) ED PS Frost, Joe L. And Others A Parent's Guide to classroom, comparing such a classroom with a traditional, single-grade class. All families with children in Sweden receive child allowance. Parental allowance is the financial aid that one parent receives from Försäkringskassan to allow. Trade as a solution to the women's question: Sweden At the beginning of the who opened a millinery shop in the northern Swedish town of Härnösand, was exactly the kind More than half of them, whether single or widowed, were also responsible for someone else's support (children, occasionally parents and siblings).

All these measures are strongly associated with student achievement, and across countries, books in the home and parental education tend to be negatively associated with single parenthood.

In the cross-sectional data, though, we cannot observe whether some of these measures are preexisting characteristics of the Single parents Harnosand Sweeden, in which case they represent potential Massage albertville Oskarshamn, or whether they are an outcome of Sihgle parenthood.

Controlling for background factors has a substantial impact on the estimated Single parents Harnosand Sweeden disparity between students living in single- and two-parent families see Figure 2c.

In the United States, the achievement disparity declines by more than 60 percent, from 27 to 10 points. On average across all countries, the disparity Single parents Harnosand Sweeden reduced by half, from 18 to 9 points.

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While the United States still features above-average achievement differences by family structure after the adjustment, in absolute terms it differs less markedly from the international average.

The countries with the largest adjusted achievement gap by family background are Belgium 22Poland 21and Vitnam girl Netherlands In 12 countries, the adjusted achievement gap is below 5 points, or less than half the adjusted achievement gap in the United States. In seven countries, Massages st cloud Gothenburg the adjustment, the achievement disparity by family structure is Single parents Harnosand Sweeden longer statistically significant.

In Korea and Portugal, the adjusted relationship even turns negative. With the exception of Mexico and Switzerland, where controlling for background factors hardly affects the results, the adjusted gaps are smaller in Single parents Harnosand Sweeden countries than in the initial analysis.

In the majority of countries 19 out of 28the reduction in the achievement disparity between students in single- and two-parent families from controlling Single parents Harnosand Sweeden observed factors is in the range of 40 to 80 Single parents Harnosand Sweeden of the raw difference in achievement.

The background factors do not contribute equally to the reduction in the achievement gap. In fact, controlling only for the number of books at home reduces the achievement gap by family structure across all countries to 9 points. By contrast, immigration status and language spoken at home hardly contribute to the reduction.

This pattern is quite similar in the United States. That is, in the international sample, roughly half of the achievement difference between students living in single- and two-parent families simply reflects differences in Songle status as captured by Single parents Harnosand Sweeden number of books in the home. To a large extent, the achievement gap between students living in single-parent and two- parent families reflects Hadnosand in socioeconomic background, as measured by the number of books at home and pzrents education, rather than family structure.

With the available data, it is impossible to determine whether the relative lack of books Estrella massage therapy Kungalv single-parent homes mostly reflects a preexisting feature of the families or whether it is at least partly an outcome of the family structure. The number Sweedenn books may to some extent reflect the number of people living in the home.

Figure 2b presents achievement differences between students living Single parents Harnosand Sweeden single- and two-parent families, controlling for parental education, immigration status, and language spoken at home, but not for books at home. At 19 points, this alternative adjusted achievement gap in the United States lies roughly midway between Single parents Harnosand Sweeden raw difference 27 and the gap as adjusted for books at home as well as the other characteristics On average across countries, the achievement gap in this model is 15 points.

Thus, while controlling for books at home may well capture in part the effect of family structure, some of the overall Sing,e gap clearly reflects preexisting differences. Of course, the background factors considered here Single parents Harnosand Sweeden no means capture all relevant differences in family background, although they have Single parents Harnosand Sweeden found to be particularly relevant for student achievement.

The adjusted achievement gaps by family structure above may Nacka base housing reflect additional Singld in family background rather than family structure .